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Palanquin, horse, hand-pull rickshaw, paddle rickshaw, tram, bus, auto-rickshaw, and finally today's pollution controlled Bharat Stage (BS) -III-IV bus ----- more or less this is the evolution of passenger transport of Kolkata. Transport demand in most of the Indian cities has increased substantially during last few decades due to increase in population (natural increase and migration from rural areas and smaller towns). Availability of motorized transport, increase in household income, and increase in commercial and industrial activities has further added to it. Unfortunately, public transport systems in Indian cities have not been able to keep pace with the rapid and substantial increase in travel demand.
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